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Threadfin Bream : Classification, Morphology, Habitat and Ecosystem

 Threadfin Bream has the international name Threadfin Bream and is a by-catch that is rarely used so that it has a relatively low price. It was also chosen because it has a high protein range of 16.85% and is usually processed into surimi (Wira, 2007). Threadfin Bream is a sea fish that people often miss because it tastes very delicious. This fish has other nicknames, including: kambayan fish, trisi, gurisi, and Nemipteridae. The chair has a reddish-white body with a dorsal fin that rises up like a fan.

Threadfin Bream
Threadfin Bream


The classification of Threadfin Bream according to Saanin (1984) is as follows:


: Animalia


: chordates


: Pisces


: Percomorphi


: Percoidea


: Nemipteridae


: Nemipterus


: Nemipterus hexodon



The Threadfin Bream has a mouth shape that is located slightly downwards and has barbels around its chin which are used to feel or detect food in search of food (Burhanuddin et al. 1994 in Siregar 1997).   According to Ficcher & Whitehead (1974)   in Siregar (1997)   Threadfin Bream are small, slender and dense in body.   The terminal mouth type has small teeth and canines on the upper jaw (sometimes on the lower jaw).   The head has no scales, the scales are on the body from the start of the gill cover. The body of the fish is elongated with a terminal mouth, the nostrils are located on either side of the snout close to each other.  Threadfin Bream  have jaws that are almost the same size between the top and bottom, on both jaws there are rows of conical teeth commonly called canine teeth and   viliform teeth.   The gill filter section of the Cursi fish has 7-8 sieve bones and upper arch, 15-18 sieve bones in the lower arch with a total number of 22-26 gill filter bones (Hhukom et al. 2004inHarahap et al.2008).


In addition to the above characteristics, other meristic characteristics of the Threadfin Bream are the dorsal fin consisting of 10 hard spines and 9 soft spines, the anal fin consists of 3 hard spines and 7 soft spines.   The size of the growth of female Threadfin Bream is generally small and the male vice versa.   The upper body has a lateral line (linear lateral).   The dorsal fin is red with yellow or orange stripes on the edges (Fishbase 2011).   There is a brownish gradation on the dorsal lateral.


Threadfin Bream is a fish that has a slender body shape rather flattened. Head without spines, the front is not scaled. The color of the head and dorsal teeth is reddish. The dorsal fin has 10 hard rays, and 9 is weak. The first and second hard fingers grow elongated like fibers (whips), as do the top rays of the tail fin sheet. The pectoral fins are long, reaching or beyond the level of the anus. Abdominal fins that are very long, or only reach level beyond the anus. The anal fin has 3 hard rays, and 7 weak rays. For the size, the male is larger than the female. Size: a maximum of 21 cm in length, generally 15 cm. Color: pink upper body, silvery white. Lives on the bottom, coral reefs, mud bottoms or sandy mud at a depth of 20-50 m. This fish includes domestic fish. 



Threadfin Bream (Nemipterus japonicus) is one of the demersal fish that has high economic value and is widely landed in PPN Karangantu. Information on N. japonicus in this location is still scanty, so a reproductive study is needed for further management.



The reproductive organs of male and female curd fish are formed in different individuals or are called dioecious. In the process of reproduction, fertilization occurs externally or externally, i.e. fertilization of eggs by sperm takes place outside the female parent.   The Threadfin Bream eat shrimp, crabs, small fish, gastropods, cephalopods, starfish, and polychaeta so that these fish are carnivorous (Sjafei & Robiyani 2001).


The first gonadal maturity of Threadfin Bream is between 45-66% of the maximum length (Boorrvarich & Vandhnakul in Brojo & Sari 2002). According to the observations of Bojo & Sari (2002), the size of the female gonads (Lm) at the   first maturity is in the range of 15-17 cm, which is about 63% of its maximum length. 


The pattern of the sex ratio of Threadfin Bream with the length of the fish, Threadfin Bream are classified into groups consisting of female fish whose gonads mature earlier and will usually die first than males, so that the large fish consist of young female and male fish measuring large according to Brijo & Sari (2002).   The sex ratio of males and females in nature is relative. Effendie (2002).   Differences in behavior patterns of male and female fish, differences in mortality rates and growth rates often deviate from 1:1 in reality in nature (Customers 1996 in Islam 2006).   According to Sentan & Tan (1975) in Brojo & Sari (2002), female Threadfin Bream have lower growth than male fish after the second year.  This happens because to reach gonad maturity, the energy used for gonad growth is greater than for body growth.


Through this research, it is known the reproductive pattern of N. japonicus from Banten Bay. The study was conducted in May-August 2012. The total number of fish taken during the study was 713 individuals. The results showed that the ratio of male and female squid fish was not balanced (1.5:1) by Chi-square test. Condition factor. japonicus ranged from 0.6036-1.4865. Male Threadfin Bream experience gonad maturity faster than female fish with the size of the first gonad maturity of 213 mm (male fish) and 220 mm (female fish). The peak of the spawning season for N. japonicus in Banten Bay waters is thought to have occurred in early June. The reproductive potential of N. japonicus is quite large, namely 1 139 - 63 727 eggs. N. japonicus egg diameter ranged from 0.0500-0.



Threadfin Bream are demersal fish with habitats covering estuarine and marine waters.   The habitat where the Threadfin Bream lives greatly affects the development of the Threadfin Bream.   The habitat of the kirisi fish usually lives on the seabed with muddy or silt mixed with sand (Burhanuddin et al. 1984 in Siregar 1997).   Threadfin Bream do not migrate and associate with corals (Fishbase 2011), these fish are found at a depth of 10-100 m.  The Threadfin Bream live at the bottom on muddy or rocky substrates and sandy mud at a depth of 10-50 m (Fisheries Port Information Center 2005 in Sulistiyawati 2012).   In addition, Threadfin Bream are found at depths of more than 100 m (Masuda 1984 in Harhap et al. 2008).



According to Chullasorn & Martosubroto (1986) in Brojo & Sari (2002), from several studies it was found that the maximum size of female Threadfin Bream is smaller than that of male fish.   Another opinion states that the small number of large female Threadfin Bream caught, this is thought to be due to the migration of the Sunda Strait Threadfin Bream to spawn.   The waters of the western part of the island of Java are estimated to be spawning grounds for Threadfin Bream, which is the main fishing ground.   Brojo & Sari (2002) said that some fish migrate to spawn after the ovaries mature which will then return to their original area after spawning.


The distribution of Threadfin Bream in World is almost found in all waters, the northern part includes the Gulf of Siam and the Philippines (Fisheries Port Information Center 2005 in Sulistiyawati 2011).   The distribution of Threadfin Bream in World covers the waters around Amon, Sumatra, Java, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya (Pardjoko 2001 in Priyanie 2006).



Threadfin Bream has many health benefits. It is rich in protein and minerals. It also has lots of vitamins and amino acids. Suitable for a healthy diet menu. Threadfin Bream is quite difficult to find in the fish market because this fish is getting rare and hard to catch. But you seem to need to know some of the health benefits of Threadfin Bream, as follows:

1. Contains Vitamin K

Vitamin K present in curried fish if consumed by humans, is efficacious for regulating normal blood clotting and preventing bleeding. It is fat soluble so the body can store the vitamin in the liver and fat tissue.

2. Improves Thyroid Function

Not only the pineal gland in adolescents can be disrupted, but thyroid function can also be affected and a decrease in function occurs, symptoms include joint pain, high cholesterol, weight gain, easy weakness and fatigue, depression, and heart disease. For that you need to eat fish Threadfin Bream for the best solution.


3. Maintain Dental Health

The fluoride content in this fish can help provide protection for the teeth of children who are experiencing growth and permanent teeth of adults to avoid decay in the mouth.


4. Accelerate Wound Healing

Threadfin Bream  contains protein that is useful in replacing damaged body cells and as building blocks. The part of the skin damaged by the wound will immediately regenerate by increasing protein consumption. This will certainly help speed up the wound healing process.


5. Reduces Swelling

Swelling is an abnormality of a part of the body, marked by bruising, redness, when touched, sore or painful. Such symptoms can be reduced by consuming curried fish regularly.


6. Benefits of Threadfin Bream  to Overcome Minor Stroke

Mild stroke is affected or experienced paralysis in certain parts of the body, for example only in the right hand, right leg. If it is not thorough, the healing process will be easier, for example by eating regularly and regularly Threadfin Bream, at least twice a week, will be able to produce results.


7. Helps Muscle Formation

The protein content of Threadfin Bream is quite high, therefore it can be used as a body-building substance. In addition, it is also useful in helping the formation of muscle mass


8. Source of Protein

By eating curried fish can help meet the protein needs in your body. In addition, it also adds energy and stamina so that in carrying out activities you are more enthusiastic and fit.


9. Contains Omega 3

In the health sector, curried fish cultivation can be chosen because the content of unsaturated fatty acids or omega 3 can help increase brain intelligence. It can also prevent the body from coronary heart disease and permanent disability due to stroke.


10. Contains Vitamin E

Vitamin E deficiency can cause abnormalities that interfere with fat absorption, especially in premature and malnourished infants. However, this is very rare because we find this vitamin a lot in food, especially in curried fish. In adults it can be caused by the wrong diet in the long term.



Threadfin Bream  act as a balancer in the aquatic ecosystem where they live, namely as predators and as organisms that provide a source of nutrition for predatory organisms in the waters where they live.

Source: Threadfin Bream : Classification, Morphology, Habitat and Ecosystem

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